vim, xdebug and PHP 5.4's development server

I recently began using xdebug and vim for debugging and breakpoints. I had been using Eclipse and xdebug, and missed this feature when I switched back to vim.

I found a few articles on the subject, but most were fairly old, missed some key points and didn't mention the 5.4 development server. I used this article as my starting point, but I had to fill in a few gaps.